Workflows offer benefits of automation and efficient orchestration (eg. data parallel execution) of multi-stage computation. Furthermore, they are powerful reproducibility and portability tools for science and engineering applications.

Typically, a workflow is written in a high level language that is offered and understood by a workflow management software or simply a workflow tool.

Workflow tools available on Condos

We currently offer support for the following workflow tools on HPC:

  1. Nextflow

  2. Makeflow

  3. Swift

A brief description about each of the aforementioned workflow tools is provided below:

Nextflow Nextflow is a favored workflow tool among Singularity container users. Similarly, it is popular among users from the Biosciences domain.

Makeflow The Makeflow workflow system uses a Makefile like language to define workflows that may be deployed and executed over clusters and clouds.

Swift Swift uses a C-like syntax to define workflows. Swift is capable of stitching computational steps defined in the workflow as a true HPC workflow that uses the Message Passing Paradigm of parallel computation using the MPI libraries and its own load balancer.

📝 Note: While Nextflow and Makeflow require additional configuration if you wish to run them on compute nodes, Swift can run directly on compute nodes by simply plugging it into a job definition script just like any other MPI application.

Example Workflows

Hello World


#!/usr/bin/env nextflow
params.str = 'Hello world!'
process splitLetters {
file 'chunk_*' into letters mode flatten
printf '${params.str}' | split -b 6 - chunk_
process convertToUpper {
file x from letters
stdout result
cat $x | tr '[a-z]' '[A-Z]'
result.subscribe {
println it.trim()

Save the above code in a file, eg. To run the workflow on open condo login node, do the following:

$ module purge
$ module load PE-gnu
$ module load java/1.8.0_131
$ module load nextflow
$ nextflow run

You should see output similar to the following:

N E X T F L O W ~ version 0.27.6
Launching `` [insane_meucci] - revision: 5319db7b93
[warm up] executor > local
[f9/cb98ba] Submitted process > splitLetters
[94/6ed3f3] Submitted process > convertToUpper (1)
[cb/506a85] Submitted process > convertToUpper (2)


A "Hello World" in Makeflow would look something like so:

$ECHO 'Hello World!' > hello.txt

Save the above code in a file, say hello.mkf and run it on the open condo like so:

$ module load PE-gnu
$ module load cctools/6.2.7
$ makeflow hello.mkf

If all goes well, the output should look like so:

parsing hello.mkf...
local resources: 32 cores, 128833 MB memory, 6893119 MB disk
max running local jobs: 32
checking hello.mkf for consistency...
hello.mkf has 1 rules.
recovering from log file hello.mkf.makeflowlog...
makeflow: hello.txt is reported as existing, but does not exist.
starting workflow....
submitting job: /bin/echo ''Hello World!'' > hello.txt
submitted job 123822
job 123822 completed
nothing left to do.

And you should see a new file called hello.txt in your current working directory.


A Swift Hello World workflow looks like so:

import io;
printf("Hello world");

Swift uses two steps to workflow execution: compile and run.

Load the swift module on condo like so:

$ module purge
$ module load PE-gnu
$ module load java/1.8.0_131 mpich/3.2
$ module load swift

Compile and run the workflow like so:

$ stc hello.swift

The above step will produce a TCL file called hello.tic. Run the TCL file like so:

turbine -n 2 hello.tic

If all goes well, you should see the following output:

Hello world

General remarks

  1. Note that the above workflows will run on login nodes. In order for them to run over compute nodes, more configuration is needed.

  2. Note that Nextflow expects absolute paths for data and executables since it works in its own temp directory. Please adjust the paths to where you choose to run the workflow.

Where to go from here?